from the perspective of sociology, psychology, biology and cosmos

Social norms and values

Socialization function around some social norms and values,which all members are expected to follow. The strength of the cohesive power of these norms and values to keep the individuals attached to the social fabric depends on the material and psychological securities and advantage the members may enjoy. The psychology of fear has also been an element in sewing the social fabric together: First the fear of the social authority holding power in deciding the norms and values, and then the fear of heaven and unseen world, like spirits, ghosts, devils, angels and gods.The psychology of fear has been an important instrument in weaving a social bond. The fear of authority, who can inflict punishment for breaking the social norms, has been central in most social systems. In many social structures these fears have been inbred in the name of the invisible powers acting behind the scenes. Through the representations of mythological animals and symbols these fears are intensified in the psyche of the social creatures and given religious meanings. Thus religions become crucial in forging and upholding social norms and values....


- value of fear in morality

- religion and morality

- compassion and morality

Evolutionary sociology

The need for survival and functioning of the genetic mechanisms of reproduction and continuation of the species, is the most central aspect of the will in the world. In some cases the genes may mutate in order to re-encode itself that may increase the chance of its reproductive success in the given environment. So the genes are not any inflexible coded program, but contain flexible methods of adaptation by changing the codes in which life may survive in a given environment. It can both respond to an environment with positive or negative emotions, and distance or attach itself, or may mutate to fit into the given world that may increase its potential of growth. This intelligence is characteristic of life forms, which define the fundamental nature of the will. With higher form, i.e. with more evolved brain, containing complex neuronal functions, coordination and communications among different parts of the brain, the intelligence also shows up in the form of cooperation and sharing among the members of the specie. In a world infested with predators all around, where everybody is seeking its most favorable ground for survival and feeding arena, for continuing its reproductive cycle, the world turns very competitive. Intelligence leads man to take advantage of the kinship and friendship relations, while one expect more willingness to share and cooperate among kin and friends than with the others living in the larger world where everybody is thrown into competition with everybody.




- morality without religion

- Nature of the will and the world

- Morality and social  evolution

- Morality and science

- Complex issues regarding individual freedom and group ggroup freedomConflicts of civilizations and  age of internet and ...

- Morality, God and esoteric world